The term is not generally used in elections in which all ballots are blank and thus all voters must write in the names of their preferred candidates.
If the compiler decides to reuse the value of r2 for the r5, then r2 and r5 will have the value 0, and r4 will have the value 3. From the perspective of the programmer, the value stored at p. The memory model determines what values can be read at every point in the program.
The actions of each thread in isolation must behave as governed by the semantics of that thread, with the exception that the values seen by each read are determined by the memory model.
When we refer to this, we say that the program obeys intra-thread semantics. Intra-thread semantics are the semantics for single-threaded programs, and allow the complete prediction of the behavior of a thread based on the values seen by read actions within the thread.
To determine if the actions of thread t in an execution are legal, we simply evaluate the implementation of thread t as it would be performed in a single-threaded context, as defined in the rest of this specification. Each time the evaluation of thread t generates an inter-thread action, it must match the inter-thread action a of t that comes next in program order.
If a is a read, then further evaluation of t uses the value seen by a as determined by the memory model. The memory model specified herein is not fundamentally based in the object-oriented nature of the Java programming language. For conciseness and simplicity in our examples, we often exhibit code fragments without class or method definitions, or explicit dereferencing.
Most examples consist of two or more threads containing statements with access to local variables, shared global variables, or instance fields of an object. We typically use variables names such as r1 or r2 to indicate variables local to a method or thread. Such variables are not accessible by other threads.
Shared Variables Memory that can be shared between threads is called shared memory or heap memory. All instance fields, static fields, and array elements are stored in heap memory. In this chapter, we use the term variable to refer to both fields and array elements.
Two accesses to reads of or writes to the same variable are said to be conflicting if at least one of the accesses is a write. Actions An inter-thread action is an action performed by one thread that can be detected or directly influenced by another thread.
There are several kinds of inter-thread action that a program may perform: Read normal, or non-volatile. Write normal, or non-volatile.
Synchronization actions, which are: A volatile read of a variable. A volatile write of a variable. Locking a monitor The synthetic first and last action of a thread. An external action is an action that may be observable outside of an execution, and has a result based on an environment external to the execution.
A thread divergence action is only performed by a thread that is in an infinite loop in which no memory, synchronization, or external actions are performed. If a thread performs a thread divergence action, it will be followed by an infinite number of thread divergence actions.
Thread divergence actions are introduced to model how a thread may cause all other threads to stall and fail to make progress.
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