Sri Lanka lies to the south, Maldives to the south-west and has maritime boundary 8 Indonesia to the south-east of India in the Indian Ocean. The Republic of India is the seventh largest country in the world by area and, with over a billion people, is second only to China in population, although its much higher birth-rate makes it likely to reach pole position in less than ten years.
Greg Richards Tourism trends: Tourism, culture and cultural routes For an updated version of this paper Novembersee: Challenges for the cultural routes and the Council of Europe Introduction Over the past 20 years, tourism has become one of the most dynamic elements of the global economy.
Worldwide the number of international arrivals reached a record million in Tourism has become a major industry and through the s and s developed a fordist production system, with standardised mass production of package holidays. In the s market maturity and slowing demand growth encouraged the developed of new models of postfordist, customised production.
The mass market began to fragment into a variety of niches, of which cultural tourism was one of the most important.
The growth of tourism also produced growing awareness of its potential negative effects, and sustainability also became a major issue. In the past decade tourism has continued to develop rapidly, with the rise of budget travel, more holistic, spiritual and creative forms of tourism and the rise of more individualised production and consumption, facilitated by the growth of Information and Communication Technologies ICT.
In recent years, therefore, attention has shifted from the purely quantitative growth of tourism demand, towards qualitative change in the nature of that demand. The following sections consider first the main drivers of tourism growth and development, and then look in more detail at the consequences of change for the nature of tourism production and consumption.
Macro trends in tourism In general, the development of tourism in recent decades has been heavily influenced by the development of society as a whole. The rise of the industrial society turned tourism into a mass leisure activity, while globalization and postmodernisation have created an increasingly fragmented, individualized and diverse field of tourism supply and demand.
According to the OECDthe current growth of tourism is largely a result of increasing globalisation, which has strengthened a number of key drivers in international tourism: The network society One of the basic changes that is taking place across social, economic, cultural and political realms is the growth of the network society Castells, The implications of the increasing importance of network and the rise of the networked organization and the networked individual are profound.
In the realm of tourism this is leading to a number of interlinked changes that will have important implications in the future: Increased networking between producers In an increasingly competitive marketplace suppliers need to move quickly and to seize every opportunity for competitive advantage.
Increasingly this can be done through cooperation and partnership — the search for collaborative advantage. The important of groups and individuals is increasingly assessed by their linkages and membership of different networks.
Networks assess their importance by their membership. The very importance of networking means that the boundaries between work and leisure are becoming more vague — we use our social networks to make friends with those who are useful to our careers and can provide contacts and knowledge for our work.
The networks we belong to therefore have an increasingly important influence on our decision making in a wide range of fields. Changing value chains Traditional vertical distribution chains are giving way to a more complex value chain involving a wide range of different suppliers from within and beyond the travel sector.
Travel is no longer dependent on the infrastructure of the old economy — airline seats, hotel beds and travel agent's shelves. We are entering a new, flexible, networked economy in which ICT, local culture and society, education, etc, become part of the tourism value chain. Traditional tourism value chain New value network W ork V isas A irlines abroad C ards C ultural B udget Local W ebsites sites hotels com m unity H ostels E ducation A dventure G uide books W eb F ood access In the new tourism value network, the destination, rather than being a simple supplier of inputs to the tourism value chain, becomes an integral part of the value creation process in tourism.
The narratives and images attached to the destination become an important determinant of the value of places to the consumer and therefore their decision-making in terms of destinations and willingness to pay.
The growing importance of events and other coordinating mechanisms The trend towards the growing importance of events has been well charted Richards and Palmer, In many ways the rise of the eventful society is linked to the network society: Our growing isolation from other individuals creates the need for significant moments of co-presence, where a feeling of communitas can be created, however briefly.
This is underlined by the success of the Hansa Days organized by the Hansa Route.
As the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute report notes: Travel markets are relationship markets. We travel to meet families and friends, to encounter new personalities, to have casual sex or because we are secretly hoping for the love of our lives.
The search for a new partner is proving increasingly difficult for a growing number of singles. Under the new circumstances in which we live, conventional ways of finding a partner are inadequate.
There is nowhere that people in the mature age groups can go to meet a new partner or lover in an easy and uncomplicated way. The general conclusion that can be drawn from the development of tourism and other areas of social and economic intercourse in recent decades is that the advent of the network society has brought profound changes to the relationship between production and consumption.
We can therefore contrast the overarching themes of the former industrial era with the driving concerns of the network society. Industrial society Network society Market transactions Relationships Mass production Customisation, individualization Economic capital Social capital Innovation Creativity Competitive advantage Collaborative advantage Branding Authenticity Information Knowledge Unskilled consumption Skilled consumption In order to ascertain what effect these macro trends are having we must first develop an overview of the way in which these forces are driving the development of tourism.
The major drivers of tourism The Future of Leisure Travel — Trend Study Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute, identified a number of key drivers for the development of global tourism, which can be grouped into social, technological, economic, ecological and political drivers.Explore world landmarks, discover natural wonders, and step inside locations such as museums, arenas, parks and transport hubs.
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