The United States House of Representatives passed the bill on December 13, voting —41 and the United States Senate passed it on December 18, voting 87— Provisions of the act[ edit ] No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students. If the school's results are repeatedly poor, then steps are taken to improve the school.
A number of general principles, which need to be borne in mind when considering any part of the legal framework are outlined in the Children Act.
The welfare of the child shall be the paramount consideration of the court. Section 1 1 ; The court shall have regard to the general principle that any delay in determining a question with respect to the upbringing of a child is likely to prejudice the welfare of the child.
It is for the doctor to decide whether the child is capable of giving consent. Children of 16 and over can give their own consent. Where a child is not of sufficient understanding, the consent of the parent, including a person with Parental Responsibility, is required.
This would include the local authority where the child is subject to a Care Order. Children who are capable of giving consent cannot be medically examined without their consent when subject to a Child Assessment Order Section 43Emergency Protection Order Section 44or Interim Care or Supervision Order Section 38or examined or treated in accordance with a full Supervision Order paragraphs 4 4 a and 5 5 a of Schedule 3 without their consent.
If there is a dispute in other circumstances in which a child refuses consent, the matter should be put to the court to resolve; The court shall not make an order unless it considers that doing so would be The children s act of 1989 objectives for the child than making no order at all. Parental Responsibility is to be exercised in the interests of, and to promote the welfare of, a child.
This ability may be affected by disability or development disorder.
It is important for professional staff to be familiar with the identity of persons with Parental Responsibility for a particular child. Parental Responsibility may be held by more than one person and each may exercise the responsibility independently of others.
Unmarried fathers may only acquire Parental Responsibility by formal agreement with the mother or by court order. Other adults may also acquire Parental Responsibility by court order. According to current law, a mother always has Parental Responsibility for her child.
A father, however, has this responsibility only if he is married to the mother or has acquired legal responsibility for his child. Living with the mother, even for a long time, does not automatically give a father Parental Responsibility.
Parental Responsibility does not always pass to the natural father if the mother dies and the parents were not married. Unmarried fathers can acquire Parental Responsibility for their children in several different ways, depending on when their children were born.
For children born before 1 Decemberunmarried fathers can get Parental Responsibility by: Marrying the mother of their child or by obtaining a Parental Responsibility order from the court; Registering a Parental Responsibility agreement with the court or by an application to court.
For children born after 1 Decemberthe situation is different. Unmarried fathers can get Parental Responsibility by: When a court makes a Care Orderthe local authority acquires Parental Responsibility and the power to determine the extent to which parents with Parental Responsibility may exercise it.
It is important that professionals concerned with the family are aware of the decisions made on this matter by the local authority. Schedule 2, Paragraph 1 Every Local Authority has a duty to take reasonable steps by providing services, under Part III of the Act, to prevent children within their area suffering ill treatment or Neglect.
There is a duty to share information about any child who is likely to suffer harm between Local Authorities where appropriate.
Paragraph 7 provides that every Local Authority shall take reasonable steps to reduce the need to bring proceedings for Care or Supervision Orders or criminal proceedings in relation to children.
Similarly there is a duty to encourage children not to commit criminal offences and to avoid the need for children in their area to be placed in secure accommodation.
Section 17 of the Act makes it a general duty of every Local Authority to: Alternatively, they may arrange for others to provide the services. Such assistance may include assistance in kind or, in exceptional circumstances, in cash. Every Local Authority has a duty to provide accommodation for any child in need within their area who appears to them to require accommodation as a result of: The local authority is under a duty to make enquiries, or cause enquiries to be made, where it has reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering, or likely to suffer Significant Harm Section A court may only make a Care Order committing the child to the care of the local authority or supervision order putting the child under the supervision of a social worker, or a probation officer in respect of a child if it is satisfied that: The child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, Significant Harm; and The harm or likelihood of harm is attributable to a lack of adequate parental care or control Section There are no absolute criteria on which to rely when judging what constitutes Significant Harm.
Consideration of the severity of ill-treatment may include the degree and the extent of physical harm, the duration and frequency of abuse and Neglect, and the extent of premeditation, degree of threat and coercion, sadism, and bizarre or unusual elements in child sexual abuse.
Sometimes, a single traumatic event may constitute Significant Harm, e. Some children live in family and social circumstances where their health and development are Neglected.
For them, it is the corrosiveness of long-term emotional, physical or sexual abuse that causes impairment to the extent of constituting Significant Harm. To understand and establish Significant Harm, it is necessary to consider: Under Sections 31 9 and 10 of the Children Act The local authority has a duty to make enquiries where they:1 38 of While most of the provisions dealing with the acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights have been in operation since 1 July , the Children's Act only became fully operational on 1 April Any further reference to "the Children's Act" has this Act in mind.
The first act of parliament for the prevention of cruelty to children, commonly known as the "children's charter" was passed. This enabled . Explanatory Notes. Text created by the government department responsible for the subject matter of the Act to explain what the Act sets out to achieve and to make the Act accessible to .
4 July Merged the publication 'Supporting children and young people who are bullied: advice for schools' with 'Preventing and tackling bullying'.
New version of 'Preventing and tackling. Changes to legislation: Children and Families Act is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 15 November There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date.
Click here to view Bodies covered by key duties (in addition to local authorities). 3. Children Act See Children Act A number of general principles, which need to be borne in mind when considering any part of the legal framework are outlined in the Children Act.