D, Rector Telkom University is a relatively newly-established university, having been founded in July following the merger of four institutions of higher education. We currently have 24, students and remain committed to our vision of becoming a world-class university that contributes to the development of the arts and sciences.
Prior to the midth century, most clothing was custom made. It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors.
By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass- produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices.
Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, today it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold world-wide.
For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally.
The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China.
However, by any measure, the industry accounts for a significant share of world economic output. The fashion industry consists of four levels: These levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors, all of which are devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit.
Media An important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique, guidelines and commentary can be found in magazines, newspapers, on television, fashion websites, social networks and in fashion blogs.
In the recent years, fashion blogging and YouTube videos have become a major outlet for spreading trends and fashion tips. Through these media outlets, readers and viewers all over the world can learn about fashion, making it very accessible. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public clothing taste.
Talented illustrators drew exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty.
Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until with the exception of the war years. Vogue, founded in the US inhas been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone.
Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines—followed by men's magazines from the s. Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses.
Television coverage began in the s with small fashion features.
In the s and s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the s, dedicated fashion shows such as Fashion-television started to appear.
Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the fashion industry. However, over the past several years, fashion websites have developed that merge traditional editorial writing with user-generated content.
Example platforms include Apple and Android for such applications. A few days after the Fall Fashion Week in New York City came to a close, The New Islander's Fashion Editor, Genevieve Tax, criticized the fashion industry for running on a seasonal schedule of its own, largely at the expense of real-world consumers.
It is estimated that Ethnic Fashion has contributed over 25 Billion dollars in revenues. Intellectual property Within the fashion industry, intellectual property is not enforced as it is within the film industry and music industry.
To "take inspiration" from others' designs contributes to the fashion industry's ability to establish clothing trends. For the past few years, WGSN has been a dominant source of fashion news and forecasts in steering fashion brands worldwide to be "inspired" by one another.
Enticing consumers to buy clothing by establishing new trends is, some have argued, a key component of the industry's success. Intellectual property rules that interfere with the process of trend-making would, on this view, be counter-productive.
In contrast, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details by larger companies is what often contributes to the failure of many smaller or independent design companies.
Since fakes are distinguishable by their inherent poorer quality, there is still a demand for luxury goods. And as only a trademark or logo can be copyrighted for clothing and accessories, many fashion brands make this one of the most visible aspects of the garment or accessory.
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