First page of the edition of the Napoleonic Code.
References and Further Reading 1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics One way of categorizing the field of ethics as a study of morality is by distinguishing between its three branches, one of them being applied ethics. By contrasting applied ethics with the other branches, one can get a better understanding what exactly applied ethics is about.
The three branches are metaethicsnormative ethics sometimes referred to as ethical theoryand applied ethics. Metaethics deals with whether morality exists. Normative ethics, usually assuming an affirmative answer to the existence question, deals with the reasoned construction of moral principles, and at its highest level, determines what the fundamental principle of morality is.
Applied ethics, also usually assuming an affirmative answer to the existence question, addresses the moral permissibility of specific actions and practices. Although there are many avenues of research in metaethics, one main avenue starts with the question of whether or not moral judgments are truth-apt.
The following will illuminate this question. Consider the following claims: A large proportion of people, and perhaps cross-culturally, will say that this claim is true and hence truth-apt.
So, it is the branch of metaethics that deals with this question, and not applied ethics. Normative ethics is concerned with principles of morality.
This branch itself can be divide into various sub-branches and in various ways: A consequentialist theory says that an action is morally permissible if and only if it maximizes overall goodness relative to its alternatives.
Consequentialist theories are specified according to what they take to be intrinsically good. Modern utilitarians, on the other hand, define goodness in terms of things like preference-satisfaction, or even well-being.
Other kinds of consequentialists will consider less subjective criteria for goodness. But, setting aside the issue of what constitutes goodness, there is a rhetorical argument supporting consequentialist theories: I take this straight from Robert N.
For example, consider the Transplant Problem, in which the only way to save five dying people is by killing one person for organ transplantation to the five. Such theories either place rights or duties as fundamental to morality.The history of Western ethics Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century The ancient Middle East and Asia.
The first ethical precepts must have been passed down by word of mouth from parents and elders, but as societies learned to use the written word, they began to set down their ethical beliefs. These records constitute the first historical evidence of the origins of ethics.
The Ethical Implications of Human Cloning The autonomy argument against cloning is not persuasive, for it wrongly implies that, absent a genetically designing parent, children can choose their the heart of the ethical regardbouddhiste.com moral problem with reproductive cloning lies.
The "God made me this way" argument and Peter's vision in Acts. From: Andre Sent: Wednesday, August 31, PM To: Robert Gagnon Subject: question re Christian homosexual Hello Dr.
Gagnon, Thanks so much for your website, your work and your publications and for sharing them so freely with so many. When writing an essay on cloning, it is necessary to analyze and mention all pro arguments, even though those can fall into contradiction with the author’s point of view. Numerous opponents of human cloning issue defend their opinion in .
Human Cloning is not a Moral Issue - Human Cloning is not a Moral Issue There has been an onslaught of protests and people lobbying for a ban on human cloning ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned by Dr.
Wilmut and his colleagues. Although there are many arguments for this technology, the changes it would make to society and culture, the reasons that point in favor of the non-implementation of this technology, and the dramatic issues that human cloning itself has all show that the cloning of humans should not occur.