Usually it is employed on timed history tests. Both were unhappy with student performance on free-response essays, and often found that students were "groping for half-remembered information" and "parroted factual information with little historical analysis or argument" when they wrote their essays.
Climate change impacts, adaptation and links to sustainable development in Africa B. Strategies for sustainable development and climate change adaptation have many common elements, so addressing them jointly can create synergies.
Sustainable development does not mean economic stagnation or giving up economic growth for the sake of the environment; it should entail promoting economic development as a requisite for maintaining environmental quality.
Economic development leads to increased capacity to address environmental and social problems. Maintaining environmental quality, in turn, is essential for sustainable development.
The link between climate change and sustainable development stems from the fact that climate change is a constraint to development, and sustainable development is a key to capacities for mitigation and adaptation see Box. It follows that strategies for dealing with sustainable development and climate change have many common elements so that applying them together creates synergies.
It also follows that since dealing with climate change exclusively could be very expensive, it has to be factored into the development agenda. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity.
This warming occurred at the rate of about 0. A temperature rise of about 0. IPCC has reported that extreme events, including floods and droughts, are becoming increasingly frequent and severe.
Certain regions of Africa are more prone to such extreme events than others. It is probable that the increased frequency of recorded disasters is a result of a combination of climatic change and socio-economic and demographic changes.
Faidutti What climate change means for Africa Habitats and ecosystems in Africa are currently under threat from a variety of stresses such as deforestation, land degradation and heavy dependence on biomass for energy.
In sub-Saharan Africa over 80 percent of the population depends on traditional biomass for cooking United Nations, Climate change is likely to be an additional stress factor Figures 1 and 2.
The key vulnerable sectors identified by IPCC b include agriculture, food and water. Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to suffer the most not only in terms of reduced agricultural productivity and increased water insecurity, but also in increased exposure to coastal flooding and extreme climatic events, and increased risks to human health.
The average income per capita in most African countries is lower now than it was 30 years ago. Of the 25 countries in Africa that faced food emergencies inten are currently experiencing civil strife and four are emerging from conflicts. Conflicts often divert scarce resources into military budgets and away from development needs, and result in high numbers of internally displaced persons and refugees.
Wealthier nations that have historically contributed the most to global warming are better able to adapt to the impacts. Addressing disparities between developed and developing countries is integral to the success of global climate change mitigation and adaptation.
Sustainable development in Africa cannot be addressed effectively without accounting for the impacts of climate change on agriculture, conflicts and disease patterns, all of which have particular impact on the poor.
Sustainable development and adaptation are mutually reinforcing; an important conclusion of IPCC is that adaptation measures, if taken up in the sustainable development framework, can diminish negative impacts from future climate change.
These goals require good governance; access to technology; investment in innovation; the involvement and commitment of all segments of society; and international, national and regional cooperation.
Climate-proof development implies extra costs over and above business as usual and a need to assess and address climate risks in national development programmes. This means that additional resources are required. Who will provide them, under what mechanisms and in what time frame are the key questions to be answered.
State of Food and Agriculture The Millennium Development Goals Report Human Development Report Atlas of our changing environment.About The Book: In this volume an attempt has been made to present in the form of connected narrative a survey of the main trends of world history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
B. Osman-Elasha. Balgis Osman-Elasha is a Senior Researcher in the Climate Change Unit of the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources, Khartoum, the Sudan.. Strategies for sustainable development and climate change adaptation have many common elements, so addressing them jointly can create synergies.
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