Findings[ edit ] The ACE Pyramid represents the conceptual framework for the ACE Study, which has uncovered how adverse childhood experiences are strongly related to various risk factors for disease throughout the lifespan, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adverse childhood experiences are common. Because ACEs occur in clusters, many subsequent studies have examined the cumulative effects of ACEs rather than the individual effects of each. As researchers followed participants over time, they discovered that a person's cumulative ACEs score has a strong, graded relationship to numerous health, socialand behavioral problems throughout their lifespan, including substance use disorders.
Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours.
The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. The index is applied to assess the economic performance Difference between structural and traumatic violence select countries from Tools and Measures Human beings are distinguished from other life forms by their unique ability to fashion tools which extend our powers of consciousness beyond the reach of our senses and our powers of execution beyond the limits of strength, endurance, space and time imposed by our physical bodies.
Tools are an instrument for social evolution. Language is a tool which enables us to formulate original ideas, communicate our inmost thoughts and feelings, record events for posterity, transmit knowledge down through the ages, and exchange ideas over vast expanses of time and space.
The efficiency of our tools is an index of our social development. Measurement is another remarkable human ability. Modern medicine could not exist without the thermometer, stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and glucometer, along with measures for blood cell count, hemoglobin, cholesterol, and countless other metrics.
Today every food ingredient is carefully measured for its exact nutritional content. It is both a tool and a measure.
But unlike other measures that are confined to measuring a single dimension or quality, money has the capacity of assigning value to almost anything material or immaterial — physical objects, human labor, social status, information, obedience, loyalty and sometimes even love.
Coinage enabled ancient kingdoms to become military and economic powers, because it facilitated standardized valuation of products and services for the financing and maintenance of huge armies. The concept of zero was unknown to the Greeks and Romans.
Developed independently in India and Mexico, it reached Europe via Arabia only in the 10th century. One need only try adding and multiplying Roman numerals to realize how greatly the introduction of Hindu-Arabic numerals, the zero, and the decimal place enhanced the capacity for accounting and the growth of trade.
Combined with double-entry bookkeeping, they spurred the commercial revolution in 13th century Italy, facilitating the precise calculation of capital and profit. The Domesday Book is a record of the first known numerical census conducted by William I of England in to identify arable lands, livestock, fisheries and other sources of national wealth as a basis for improved tax collection.
The first US census was conducted in Today economics employs a wide range of indispensable measuring tools, including GDP, the consumer price index, interest rate, money supply, exchange rate and the unemployment rate.
While the general public may regard these tools as accurate measures of economic reality, economists recognize that they are in fact only rough, approximate indicators designed to reflect economic reality rather than accurately measure it. Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress, which is why efforts are constantly being made to improve their power and precision.
The atomic clock has replaced the sundial, hourglass and pendulum. DNA fingerprinting has largely replaced hand fingerprinting as a precise means for identifying human beings.
Global satellite navigation has made the chronometer obsolete. The 20th century has been aptly described as The First Measured Century in recognition of the enormous recent strides in harnessing the power of measurement. Today humanity pursues a common quest for higher standards of living, greater economic security, sustainable development, higher levels of welfare and well-being.
For decades, the very intensity of the pursuit for a better life obscured the inadequacy of our conceptions and our instruments for achieving it. But in recent decades we are compelled by social, economic and environmental challenges to seek more precise definitions of what we mean by these terms and more exact tools for measuring our progress toward achieving them.
Social and economic measures are inseparable from political objectives and public policy. It is not merely scientific precision that we are after, but more powerful instruments for achieving human objectives.
Wrong or imprecise measures are a source of hazard and even havoc. They can result in wrong policy with disastrous consequences.Workplace trauma has received more attention in recent years. People typically think of workplace 'violence' upon hearing about trauma inthe workplace.
UNDERSTANDING DOMESTIC AND FAMILY VIOLENCE. It can occur between people in a range of domestic relationships including: Spousal relationships. Intimate personal relationships. Family relationships.
Help us to make a difference in the lives of women and children who are experiencing domestic and family violence.
Support us to support them. Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic [James Gilligan] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Drawing on firsthand experience as a prison psychiatrist, his own family history, and literature, Gilligan unveils the motives of men who commit horrifying crimes.
p>Is there a difference between abuse and trauma? If so, what is it? for instance, talking about their recent breakup as being traumatic to them, but this sort of thing, though painful, is not really a trauma.
A real mental health trauma usually occurs when someone has been exposed to real violence with the very real possiblity of death. 2 Medical Peace Work | Course 4: Structural violence and the underlying causes of violent conflict The Medical Peace Work textbook, 2 nd edition What is the relationship between development and structural violence?
1 1 Structural violence and the underlying causes of violent conflict Chapter 1: An overview of development Intermediate. Structural violence is a term commonly ascribed to Johan Galtung, which he introduced in the article "Violence, Peace, and Peace Research" ().
It refers to a form of violence wherein some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs.