What changes occur in H, S, and G when a protein forms from amino acids? How does an enzyme catalyze a reaction? Explain the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
Light Dependent Reaction — occurs on the thylakoid lumen iii. Electrons are passed from excited atoms that gain energy from a photon. Proton gradient within the thylakoid interior is made as electrons from photosystems are passed through proton pumps. Light Independent Reaction — occurs in the stroma vi.
Land plants must compromise opening the stroma to maintain high CO2 concentration with loss of H2O. There are 2 additional adaptations that evolved: Occurs in outer cells mesophyll.
Calvin cycle occurs in inner cells only closer to supply of CO2, bundle sheath. CAM Pathway — like C-4, but fixation only occurs at night, when water loss is minimal.
Found in desert plants, like cacti. One-sixth of the PGAL produced is used to create glucose for the cell to grow and repair. Glycolysis — occurs in the cytoplasm.
All organisms carry out this process. The remaining 3 carbon molecule is pyruvate. Only produces 2 ATP per glucose through glycolysis. Some organisms anaerobic do it exclusively. Occurs regularly in all cells, but products can build up when NAD supplied through reduction of pyruvate is not available.
Alcoholic — produces ethanol and CO2 from reduction of pyruvate. Lactic acid — produces lactic acid from the reduction of pyruvate. Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria or in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
Acetyl CoA is added to Oxaloacetate to form Citrate.
Citrate is broken down releasing 2 H2O and is oxidized 4x: Oxaloacetate is the product and continues the cycle by being added to the next available acetyl CoA. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation — takes place on the cristae inner mitochondrial membrane.
Electrons are passed to cytochrome and protons are pumped into the proton pumps.
The protons diffuse back through ATP synthase in a process called chemiosmosis. The energy harnessed allows an oxidative phosphorylation of ATP.
Free protons in the matrix and the electrons accepted by E. C are passed to O2, which is reduced to water.
Stomata Allows gas exchange; since a lot of water can be lost, plants only open stomata for photosynthesis in daylight; at night they close to reduce loss of water. Calvin Cycle during day C-4 Plants:Cell Organelles – Foldable Study Guide Cell Wall A strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria Cell membrane Cell Membrane Cell Membrane a thin flexible outer layer that protects and surrounds the cell and REGULATES what enters and leaves the cell Control center.
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