The History Learning Site, 9 Mar Music, along with all other forms of culture, was subject to Nazification from January on. Hence some composers were tolerated and even elevated to a status of pure Nazism, while other composers, frequently Jewish, were shunned and effectively censored. German composers had played a huge part in defining classical music during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.
Although "Western" and "classical" are inexact terms, they do name a reasonably coherent musical tradition that stretches from the Dark Ages to the present day. The descriptive texts will not delve deeply into matters of musical meaning or technique; the purpose of the outline is to give you a basic working familiarity with different periods and styles.
Medieval History Plainchant through Machaut Western classical music history is traditionally understood as beginning with plainchant also called "Gregorian" chantthe vocal religious practice of the Roman Catholic Church.
Plainchant was transmitted by memory until the early 9th century, when the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne arranged for it to be notated, and for standardized plainchant books to be distributed to churches and monasteries across Europe.
Limited in pitch range and monophonic i.
Plainchant was sung in the Divine Offices, eight daily prayer services using Old Testament texts, and in the Mass, a midmorning celebration of the life and death of Jesus Christ.
Alleluia pascha nostrum before [ Text ] The earliest major repertory of Western secular non-religious music which has come down to us is that of the troubadors and trouveres, French poet-musicians of the Middle Ages who set their own poems to music.
The majority of the resulting songs were about love, often the fictionalized, abstracted "courtly love" of a male character for a noblewoman above his social level. Because troubador songs were notated as simple rows of pitches without rhythm, the rhythms and instrumental accompaniments of modern performances are based on conjecture; images of troubadors in medieval manuscripts have offered hints as to what instruments were played.
Bernart de Ventadorn c. His "La douza votz," written in the now-extinct language Provencal, deals with the singer's rejection by the lady whom he has long served. Bernart de Ventadorn, " La douza votz " The sweet voice late 12th c.
He did this by greatly slowing down an existing plainchant, and adding to it a new, more rapidly flowing musical line at a higher pitch. This technique was called organum; the slowed-down plainchant was called the tenor. Some sections of Leonin's polyphony were sped up and rhythmicized; later composers added the words of devotional poems to Leonin's notes.
This example uses the Alleluia pascha nostrum plainchant as its tenor; it was sung as part of Easter services at the spectacular Gothic cathedral Notre Dame of Paris. Alleluia pascha nostrum late 12th c. Many of Perotin's organa pl. Perotin slowed down the tenor to an incredible degree--in this example, it takes the tenor four minutes to sing the two words "Viderunt omnes"!
Viderunt omnes is a gradual, a joyful text sung in response to a New Testament reading during Mass It was sung on Christmas Day. Soon, three-part motets appeared, with a different text sung in each voice.
Sometimes the texts were in different languages! Composers came to use for tenors secular French songs as well as passages of plainchant. One such composer was Guillaume de Machaut c. The following motet is based on a secular tenor; each of its three voices sings a different French love poem.
Nuper rosarum flores commemorates the dedication of the cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence in Dufay owed his rich sound to harmonic techniques brought from England by his contemporary John Dunstable.
Nuper rosarum flores [ Text ] The Renaissance's grandest, most highly valued works of vocal music were polyphonic settings of the Ordinary of the Mass. The Ordinary is composed of five texts--Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei the first words of the texts --that were included in every Mass, not only in Masses that celebrated special occasions.
Each text was set as a separate movement. Often, each movement began with a similar melody, in which case the Mass was called "cyclic"; when that melody was taken from plainchant or from a secular song, the Mass was called a "parody Mass" "parody" meant in the sense of imitation, but not humorously.
The most famous mass of Josquin des Pres was that parodying the plainchant beginning with the text "Pangue lingua. Josquin, Missa Pangue Lingua, Gloria c. The madrigal typically set a poem in Italian later, often in English with an intense emotional cast.
The setting was usually for four or five voices with no instrumental accompaniment, although instruments were probably added in performance at times. The most famous example of his work is Il bianco e dolce cigno. Arcadelt, Il bianco e dolce cigno The White and Gentle Swan [ Text ] Toward the end of the 16th century, madrigals became more tortuous harmonically and more aggressive in their use of musical devices to project the text's meaning and character.
Luca Marenzio was the most celebrated "madrigalist" of his day.
Marenzio, Solo e pensoso Alone and Pensive [ Text ] The instrumental music of the Renaissance largely fell into two categories: Different dance styles corresponded to different underlying musical rhythms as with today's Latin dance music.
The German Michael Praetorius ? Praetorius gave no indication of what instruments were to be used--his dances were played by whatever instruments were available. Here, the Early Music Consort of London switches between four different "consorts" of instruments, one per volte, before all four consorts play the end of the fourth volte together.
A consort was a set of instruments similar in design and tone but varied in size and pitch. Bach The Baroque era of Western classical music is usually defined as the period from to Beethoven was so loved by the German people that his legacy of music was unrivaled by any other composer.
Listen to a sample of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Ludwig van Beethoven biography and picture gallery at the Classical Music Pages. German Classical is one of the most performed in the world; German composers include some of the most accomplished and popular in history, among them Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Friedrich Händel, Ludwig van Beethoven, Felix Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms, Robert Schumann and Richard Wagner.
By the time the s rolled around, punk music was a huge deal in West Germany. Deutschpunk, which is characterized by simple lyrics, quick tempos, and leftist messages, was particularly regardbouddhiste.com genre arose as a counter to the various events of the Cold War.
Germany - Music and dance: In the 12th and 13th centuries, German poets and musicians known as minnesingers, influenced by the troubadours and trouvères of France, composed and performed songs of courtly love for the Hohenstaufen dukes of Franconia and Swabia. Their most prominent representative, Walther von der Vogelweide, is recognized for his didactic moral and religious poetry as well as.
Find out why Germany has a history of music like no other as you discover world-famous concert halls and attend high-caliber performances on this perfectly composed adventure.
Classical Germany: The Music of Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden.
Opera. this is the surreal story of a mute dwarf named Oskar who lives through Nazi Germany and finds. Classical music in the German Democratic Republic is commonly viewed as having functioned as an ideological support or cultural legitimization for the state, in the form of the so-called "bourgeois humanist inheritance." The large numbers of professional.